#### Relearning C++ After C++11

### Key Takeaways

- C++ still matters and always will.
- There are many resources to help you with modern C++, including Godbolt’s compiler explorer, ISOCpp, and CppReference.
- C++ can be simpler than it used to be. Along with convenience enhancements, potential performance improvements were one of the motivations for C++11, and subsequent standards.
- Practice by filling a vector and writing out its contents.
- Practice further by using algorithms, ranges and lambdas on your vector to find elements with specific properties.

C++ is an old but evolving language. You can use it for almost anything and will find it in many places. In fact, C++’s inventor Bjarne Stroustrup described it as the invisible foundation of everything. Sometimes, it might be deep inside a library of another language, because C++ can be used for performance critical paths. It can run in small, embedded systems or it can power video games. Your browser might be using it. C++ is almost everywhere!

## Why C++ matters

Now, C++ has been around for a long time, but has changed significantly, particularly since 2011. A new standard, referred to as C++11 was introduced then, marking the beginning of a new era of frequent updates. If you haven’t used C++ since before C++11, you have a lot to catch up on, so where do you start?

The language is compiled, targeted at a specific architecture such as a PC, a mainframe, an embedded device, bespoke hardware, or anything else you can think of. If you need your code to run on various different types of machines, you need to recompile it. This has pros and cons. Different configurations give you more maintenance work, but compiling to a specific architecture gets you “down to the metal”, allowing the speed advantage.

Whatever platform you target, you will need a compiler. You also need an editor or integrated development environment (IDE) to write code in C++. ISOCpp gives a list of resources, including C++ compilers. The Gnu compiler collection (gcc), Clang and Visual Studio all have free versions. You can even use Matt Godbolt’s compiler explorer to try code on various compilers in your browser. The compiler may support various different versions of C++ so you have to state the version you need in the compiler flags, for example `-std=c++23`

for `g++ or /std:c++latest`

for Visual Studio. The ISOCpp website has a FAQ section which gives an overview of some recent changes, including C++11 and C++14, and big picture questions. There are several books focussed on later new versions of C++ too.

## Quick look at C++11 using Vector

If you’ve been left behind, the plethora of resources might be overwhelming. However, we can focus on a small example to understand some basics. Stopping to try things out is often the best way to learn. So let’s start with something approachable!

A useful (and easy) starting point is the humble `vector`

, which lives in the `vector`

header in the namespace `std`

, short for standard. CppReference provides an overview telling us the `vector`

is a *sequence container that encapsulates dynamic sized arrays*. A `vector`

therefore contains a sequence of contiguous elements, and we can resize a vector as needed. The `vector`

itself is a class template, so it needs a type, for example `std::vectorint>`

. We can add an item to the end of a vector using `push_back`

. C++11 introduced a new method called `emplace_back`

which takes values to construct a new item. For an `int`

, the code looks identical:

` std::vector` numbers;
numbers.push_back(1);
numbers.emplace_back(1);

If we had something more complicated than an `int`

, we might get performance benefits from the emplace version, because the emplace version can avoid copying the item by constructing it in place.

C++11 introduced *r-value references* and *move semantics* to avoid unnecessary copying. Potential performance improvements were one of the motivations for C++11, which subsequent versions have built on. To explain what r-value references are, let’s consider the `push_back`

method from the previous example. It has two overloads, one taking a const reference, `const T&`

value, and one taking an r-value reference, `T&&`

value. The second version can move the elements into the vector, which can avoid copying temporary objects. Likewise, the signature of `emplace_back`

takes the arguments by r-value reference, `Args&&…`

, again allowing the arguments to be moved rather than copied. Move semantics is a big topic, and we have only scratched the surface. Thomas Becker wrote an excellent article back in 2013 that walks through the details if you want to learn more.

Let’s now make a `vector`

and put a couple of items in it, then display the contents using `std::cout`

, from the `iostream`

header. We use the stream insertion `operator to display the elements. We can write a `

`for`

loop over the `size`

of the `vector`

, and use `operator []`

to access each element:

`#include `
#include
void warm_up()
{
std::vector numbers;
numbers.push_back(1);
numbers.emplace_back(1);
for(int i=0; i

The code displays two 1s. This code is available on the compiler explorer.

## Class template argument deduction

Let’s do something slightly more interesting, and learn a bit more modern C++. We can build up the first few triangle numbers and we might spot a pattern. The triangle numbers are 1, 3, 6, 10, … formed by summing 1, 1+2, 1+2+3, 1+2+3+4, … . If we racked up that many snooker balls, we could make a triangle, hence the name:

To add another row, we would add six more snooker balls. A further row would add seven, and so on.

In order to get the numbers 1, 2, 3, etc. we could form a vector filled with 1s, then sum these. Rather than using another loop, we can directly create a vector with, say, 18 ones. We state how many we want followed by the value:

` std::vector numbers(18, 1);`

Notice we don’t need to say

any more. Since C++17, *class template argument deduction* (CTAD) has been possible. The compiler can deduce that we mean `int`

, since we asked for the value 1, which is an `int`

. If we need to display the vector, we can use a *range based for loop*. Instead of using a traditional `for`

loop over the vector’s indices, we state a type, or even use the new keyword `auto`

, telling the compiler to figure out the type, followed by a colon and then the container:

```
for (auto i : numbers)
{
std::cout
```

CTAD and the range based `for`

loop are some of the convenience features introduced since C++11.

## Ranges

Armed with a vector of ones, we can include the `numeric`

header, and fill a new `vector`

with the partial sums, 1, 1+1, 1+1+1, etc. giving us 1, 2, 3, etc. We need to state the type of the new `vector`

because we will start with an empty `vector`

and the compiler can’t deduce its type without any values to use. The `partial_sum`

needs the beginning and end of the numbers and finally we need to use a `back_inserter`

so the destination vector grows as needed:

` #include `
…
std::vector numbers(18, 1);
std::vector sums;
std::partial_sum(numbers.begin(), numbers.end(),
std::back_inserter(sums));

This gives us the numbers 1 to 18 inclusive. We are part way to our triangle numbers, but C++ now lets us be more succinct. C++11 introduced the `iota`

function, also in the `numeric`

header, which fills a container with increasing values for us:

` std::vector` sums(18);
std::iota(sums.begin(), sums.end(), 1);

In fact, C++23 introduced a ranges version, which finds `begin`

and `end`

for us:

` std::ranges::iota(sums, 1);`

C++23 isn’t widely supported yet, so you might have to wait until your compiler offers the ranges’ version. Many of the algorithms in the `numeric`

and `algorithm`

headers have two versions, one taking a pair of input iterators, `first`

and `last`

, and a ranges version simply taking the container. Ranges overloads are gradually being added to standard C++. Ranges offer far more than avoiding the need to specify two iterators. We can filter and transform inputs, chain these together, and use views to avoid copying data. Ranges support lazy evaluation, so the contents of the view is only evaluated when needed. Ivan Čukić’s *Functional Programming in C++* gives further details on this (and much more).

We need to do one last thing to form the triangle numbers. If we find the partial sums of the vector

` std::partial_sum(sums.begin(), sums.end(), sums.begin());`

we have the triangle numbers we wanted, 1, 3, 6, 10, 15, … 171.

We noted there are ranges versions of some algorithms. Let’s use one. The first two triangle numbers 1 then 3 are odd, then we get two even numbers, 6 then 10. Does this pattern continue? If we transform our vector, flagging odd numbers with a dot, `'.'`

, and even numbers with a star `'*'`

, we will find out. We can declare a new vector to hold the transformation. We will use a single character for each number, so we need a `vector`

of `char`

:

`std::vector` odd_or_even.

We can write a short function taking an int and returning the appropriate character:

```
char flag_odd_or_even(int i)
{
return i % 2 ? '.' : '*';
}
```

If `i % 2`

is non-zero, we have an odd number, so we return `'.'`

; otherwise, we return `'*'`

. We can use our function in the `transform`

function from the `algorithm`

header. The original version took a pair of input iterators, first and last, an output iterator and a *unary function*: a function taking one input, like our `flag_odd_or_even`

function. C++20 introduced a ranges version, which takes an input source, rather than a pair of iterators, along with the output iterator and unary function. This means we can write

` std::vector` odd_or_even;
std::ranges::transform(sums,
std::back_inserter(odd_or_even),
flag_odd_or_even);

to transform the sums we generated earlier. If we look at the output we see

`. . * * . . * * . . * * . . * * . .`

It appears that we do get two odd numbers then two even numbers over and over. Stack Exchange’s math site explains why this happens.

## Lambdas

Let’s make one final improvement to our code using another new C++ feature. If we look at the transformation code, we have to look elsewhere to see what the unary function does.

C++11 introduced anonymous functions or *lambda expressions*. They look like named functions, having parameters in brackets, and the body in curly braces, however they do not have a name, do not need a return type, and have a capture group denoted by `[]`

:

`[](int i) { return i%2? '.':'*'; }`

If we compare this with the named function

`char flag_odd_or_even(int i){ return i % 2 ? '.' : '*'; }`

we can see the similarity. We can specify variables in the capture group, giving us a *closure*. They are beyond the scope of this article, but are very powerful and common in functional programming.

If we assign the lambda to a variable

`auto lambda = [](int i) { return i % 2 ? '.' : '*'; };`

we can call it as we would a named function:

`lambda(7);`

This feature allows us to rewrite the transform call with a lambda:

```
std::ranges::transform(sums,
std::back_inserter(odd_or_even),
[](int i) { return i%2? '.':'*'; });
```

We can then see what the transforming function does without having to look elsewhere.

## Summary

Pulling everything together, we have the following code:

`#include `
#include
#include
#include
int main()
{
std::vector sums(18);
std::iota(sums.begin(), sums.end(), 1);
std::partial_sum(sums.begin(), sums.end(), sums.begin());
std::vector odd_or_even;
std::ranges::transform(sums,
std::back_inserter(odd_or_even),
[](int i) { return i%2? '.':'*'; });
for (auto c : odd_or_even)
{
std::cout

We’ve used ranges, lambdas and a range-based `for`

loop, glanced through move semantics as well as practised with a vector. Not bad for a first jaunt back into C++!

You can try out the code above on compiler explorer here.

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